The KISS Grammar Workbooks To Charles Dickens Page
(Code and Color Key)

Apostrophes to Show Possession
from Charles Dickens' A Tale of Two Cities
Analysis Key

     Note that in some cases, the absence of the apostrophe obscures the number of the noun, as in "the bakers shelves." It could be one baker, or it could be several, depending on where the apostrophe belongs.

1. A man's voice called {from the mist}, [DO "Is that the Dover mail (PN)?"] |

______A voice of a man ______________________________
2. Mr. Lorry's thoughts seemed to cloud too. |
_________The thoughts of Mr. Lorry____________________
3. "But this is my father's story (PN), sir [#1]." |
_______the story of my father_________________________
Note how this version sounds more as if the story is about the father rather than by him.
4. Mr. Lorry laid his hand (DO) {upon Defarge's arm}. |
____________upon the arm of Defarge__________________
5. Not a word {of it} had reached the young lady's ears (DO). |
_____________the ears of the young lady_________
6. The rider's horse was blown (P), | and both horse and rider were covered (P)

     {with mud}, {from the hoofs} {of the horse} {to the hat} {of the man}. |

___________The horse of the rider______________
7. He dropped his daughter's hand (DO) and clasped his head (DO) again. |
________the hand of his daughter________________
8. The cutler's knives and axes were sharp (PA) and bright (PA), | the 

     smith's hammers were heavy (PA), | and the gunmaker's stock was 

     murderous (PA). |

_The knives of the cutler____the hammers of the smith_______the stock of the gunmaker______
9. Hunger was the inscription (PA) {on the baker's shelves} [#2]

     written [#3]  {in every small loaf} {of his scanty stock} {of bad bread}. |

__________the shelves of the baker_______________
10. "Now [#4] [ [#5] if this doctor's wife had suffered so intensely {from this 

     cause} [Adv. to "had suffered" before her little child was born (P) ]]--" |

______if the wife of this doctor___________________

1. The word "sir" functions as Direct Address. See KISS Level 2.3.
2. Note how "on the  baker's shelves" can be seen as adverbial to "was" and/or adjectival to "inscription."
3. "Written" is a verbal (gerundive) that modifies "inscription."
4. "Now" is typically considered an adverb, but here it functions as an interjection.
5. Because this sentence is incomplete, and thus a fragment, the "if" clause modifies an unknown main clause.