The Printable KISS Grammar Workbooks To Charles Dickens Page
(Code and Color Key)

Expletives
From Charles Dickens' A Tale of Two Cities
Analysis Key

     Remember that if we explain the "there" as the subject, the verb agrees in number with the predicate noun (because predicate nouns are equal to the subject).

1. {At every juryman's vote}, there was a roar (PN). |

2. There's not a fork (PN) or a spoon (PN) {in the collection}. |

3. {For him} {along these country roads} there was no hope (PN) {of return}. |

4. What strength (PN) there is {in these common bodies}! |

5. "Carton [#1], there is no escaping (PN) [#2] {from this place}." |

6. {In its obscurity} there was ignorant hope (PN). |

7. There are no medicines (PN) to be obtained [#3] {in this lonely place}. |

8. {At one} {of the theatre doors}, there was a little girl (PN) {with a mother},

     looking [#4] {for a way} {across the street} {through the mud}. |

9. {In a smaller chest} {beneath his seat} there were a few smith's tools (PN),

     a couple (PN) {of torches}, and a tinder-box (PN). |

10. There was no pause (PN), no pity (PN), no peace (PN), no interval 

     (PN) {of relenting rest}, [#5] no measurement (PN) {of time}. |


Notes
1. "Carton" functions as Direct Address. See KISS Level 2.3.
2. "Escaping" is a verbal noun (a gerund). See KISS Level 4.
3. "To be obtained" is a verbal (infinitive) that functions as an adjective to "medicines." See KISS Level 4.
4. "Looking" is a verbal (gerundive) that functions as an adjective. The comma after "mother" tends to separate it from "mother," and to throw it back to "girl," but in regular reading most people probably connect it to the mother or to both.  See KISS Level 4.
5. The absence of an "and" here suggests that all the predicate nouns refer to something that is essentially the same thing--hence, "was" instead of "were."