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Embedded Subordinate Clauses
# 2 From Charles Dickens' A Tale of Two Cities
Analysis Key

1. {At the instant} [#1] [Adj. to "instant" when Darnay saw a 

     rush (DO) {in the eyes} {of the crowd}, [Adj. to "crowd" which [#2] 

     another instant would have brought {upon him}]], the postmaster 

     turned his horse (DO) {into the yard}, | the escort rode in close {upon

      his horse's flanks}, | and the postmaster shut and barred the crazy

      double gates (DO). |

2. So [#3] much was closing in {about the women} [Adj. to "women" who sat 

     knitting, knitting [#4] ], [Adv. (result) to "So" that they their very selves [#5]

     were closing in {around a structure} yet unbuilt [#6], [Adj. to "structure" where

     they were *going* to sit [#7] knitting, knitting, counting  dropping 

     heads [#8] ]]. |

3. Mr. Lorry hacked the shoemaker's bench (DO) {to pieces}, [Adv. (time)

      to "hacked" while Miss Pross held the candle (DO) [Adv. (manner) to 

      "held" as if she were assisting [#9] {at a murder} -- [#10] [Adj. to "murder"

     {for which}, indeed, {in her grimness}, she was no unsuitable figure (PN) ]]]. |

4. But, {in the composure} {of his manner} he was unaltered (PA), {except 

     [OP that {to the shrewd glance} {of Mr. Lorry} it disclosed some shadowy 

     indication (DO) [Adj. to "indication" that the old air {of avoidance and dread}

     had lately passed {over him}, {like a cold wind} ]]. |

5. {Within a hundred miles}, and {in the light} {of other fires}, there were other 

     functionaries (PN) less fortunate [#11], that night [NuA] and other 

      nights [NuA], [Adj. to "functionaries" whom (DO) the rising sun found 

     hanging [#12] {across once-peaceful streets}, [Adj. to "streets" where they 

     had been born (P) and bred (P) ]]. |

1. This prepositional phrase crosses main clause boundaries -- it modifies "turned," "rode," "shut," and "barred."
2. Note how this "which" functions simultaneously as a subordinating conjunction and as the direct object of "would have brought."
3. "Much" is an adjective that can function as a pronoun, as it does here, but "so" is generally considered an adverb. Thus we can see the "So" as functioning as an adverb to the "much." If someone wanted to explained it as an adjective, I would not object. (It is not an important question.)
4. "Sat knitting" can be explained either as a palimpsest pattern with "sat" written over "were." (See KISS Level 2.1.4 - Palimpsest Patterns.) Alternatively, "sat" can be considered the finite verb, and "knitting" can be explained as a verbal (gerund) that functions as a Noun Used as an Adverb. (See "Gerunds" in KISS Level 4.) Finally, note that there is no "and" that joins "knitting" to "knitting." As a result, we can consider the second "knitting" as an appositive to the first. (See KISS Level 5.4 - Appositives.)
5. "Selves" is an appositive to "they."
6. "Unbulit" is a post-positioned adjective to "structure." (See KISS Level 5.5 - Post-Positioned Adjectives.)
7. See Ex. 8, "To be to" -  Ellipsed Passive plus an Infinitive? in KISS Level 5.7 - Passive Voice and Retained Complements.
8. "Heads" is the direct object of the gerundive "counting" that modifies "they." Alternatively, like "knitting," "counting" can be viewed as a gerund that functions as a Noun Used as an Adverb. Note that when adjectives derived from verbs precede the noun they modify (as in "dropping") KISS considers them regular adjectives. (Rare is the student who has problems understanding what  they modify.)
9. "Were" here is a subjunctive. See KISS Level 2.1.7 - The KISS Perspective on the Subjunctive Mood.
10. This dash is interesting, setting off, as it does, a subordinate clause. Its effect is to make the "for which" clause the equivalent of a parenthetical construction--a less important, but relevant detail.
11. "Fortunate" is a post-positioned adjective to "functionaries."
12. This is an interesting configuration for which grammarians would probably have a number of distinct explanations. In KISS, the best explanation is to view "hanging" as a gerundive that clearly modifies "whom," which, of course, means the functionaries. At KISS Level 5.8, some people may prefer to view "whom hanging" as a noun absolute that functions as the direct object of "found." (The sun did not find the functionaries; it found the functionaries hanging.)