The Printable KISS Grammar Workbooks The KISS Workbooks Anthology
Selection # 4 from 
Robert L. Heilbroner's The Worldly Philosophers
1. Put parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase.
2. Underline subjects once, finite verbs twice, and label complements ("PN," "PA," "IO," "DO").
3. Place brackets around each subordinate clause. If the clause functions as a noun, label its function ("PN," "IO," "DO," "OP") above the opening bracket. If it functions as an adjective or adverb, draw an arrow from the opening bracket to the word that the clause modifies.
4. Put a vertical line at the end of every main clause.
5. Briefly explain the logic implied by the words and/or punctuation marks that join the compounded main clauses.

     It would be hard to imagine two persons more widely separated in

background and career than Thomas Robert Malthus and David 

Ricardo. Malthus, as we know, was the son of an eccentric member

of the English upper middle class; Ricardo was the son of a Jewish 

merchant-banker who had immigrated from Holland. Malthus was 

tenderly tutored for a university under the guidance of a 

philosophically minded father (one of his tutors went to jail for 

expressing the wish that the French revolutionaries would invade and 

conquer England); Ricardo went to work for his father at the age of 

fourteen. Malthus spent his life in academic research; he was the

first professional economist, teaching at the college founded in 

Haileyburg by the East India Company to train its young 

administrators; Ricardo set up in business for himself at the age of 

twenty-two. Malthus was never well-to-do; by the time he was 

twenty-six, Ricardo -- who had started with a capital of eight hundred

pounds -- was financially independent, and in 1814, at the age of 

forty-two, he retired with a fortune variously estimated to be worth 

between £500, 000 and £1,600,000.

     Yet oddly enough it was Malthus, the academician, who was 

interested in the facts of the real world, and Ricardo, the man of 

affairs, who was the theoretician; the businessman cared only for 

invisible "laws" and the professor worried whether these laws fitted 

the world before his eyes. And as a final contradiction, it was Malthus

with his modest income who defended the wealthy landowner, and 

Ricardo, a man of wealth and later a landlord himself, who fought 

against their interests.