1. Put parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase.
2. Underline subjects once, finite verbs twice, and label complements ("PN," "PA," "IO," "DO").
3. Place brackets around each subordinate clause. If the clause functions as a noun, label its function ("PN," "IO," "DO," "OP") above the opening bracket. If it functions as an adjective or adverb, draw an arrow from the opening bracket to the word that the clause modifies.
4. Put a vertical line at the end of every main clause.
5. Briefly explain the logic implied by the words and/or punctuation marks that join the compounded main clauses.
It would be hard to imagine two persons more widely separated in
background and career than Thomas Robert Malthus and David
Ricardo. Malthus, as we know, was the son of an eccentric member
of the English upper middle class; Ricardo was the son of a Jewish
merchant-banker who had immigrated from Holland. Malthus was
tenderly tutored for a university under the guidance of a
philosophically minded father (one of his tutors went to jail for
expressing the wish that the French revolutionaries would invade and
conquer England); Ricardo went to work for his father at the age of
fourteen. Malthus spent his life in academic research; he was the
first professional economist, teaching at the college founded in
Haileyburg by the East India Company to train its young
administrators; Ricardo set up in business for himself at the age of
twenty-two. Malthus was never well-to-do; by the time he was
twenty-six, Ricardo -- who had started with a capital of eight hundred
pounds -- was financially independent, and in 1814, at the age of
forty-two, he retired with a fortune variously estimated to be worth
between £500, 000 and £1,600,000.
Yet oddly enough it was Malthus, the academician, who was
interested in the facts of the real world, and Ricardo, the man of
affairs, who was the theoretician; the businessman cared only for
invisible "laws" and the professor worried whether these laws fitted
the world before his eyes. And as a final contradiction, it was Malthus
with his modest income who defended the wealthy landowner, and
Ricardo, a man of wealth and later a landlord himself, who fought
against their interests.