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(Code and Color Key)

Selection # 4 from 
Robert L. Heilbroner's The Worldly Philosophers
Analysis Key

     It would be hard (PA) to imagine [#1] two persons more widely separated [#1] {in

background and career} {than Thomas Robert Malthus and David Ricardo} [#2]. | Malthus

[ [#3] as we know], was the son (PN) {of an eccentric member} {of the English upper

middle class}; | Ricardo was the son (PN) {of a Jewish merchant-banker} [Adj. to 

"merchant-banker" who had immigrated {from Holland}]. | Malthus was tenderly

tutored (P) {for a university} {under the guidance} {of a philosophically minded father} [ [#4]

(one {of his tutors} went {to jail} {for expressing [#5] the wish} [Adj. to "wish" that

the French revolutionaries would invade and conquer England (DO)])]; |

Ricardo went to work [#6] {for his father} {at the age} {of fourteen}. | Malthus spent

his life (DO) {in academic research}; [#7] | he was the first professional economist

(PN), teaching [#8] {at the college} founded [#9] {in Haileyburg} {by the East India 

Company} to train its young administrators [#10]; | Ricardo set up {in business} {for 

himself} {at the age} {of twenty-two}. | Malthus was never well-to-do (PA); | {by the 

time} [Adj. to "time" he was twenty-six (PA)], Ricardo -- [#11] [Adj. to "Ricardo"

who had started {with a capital} {of eight hundred pounds}] -- was financially

independent (PA), | and {in 1814}, {at the age} {of forty-two}, he retired {with a 

fortune} variously estimated [#12] to be worth [#12] {between £500,000 and £1,600,000}. |

     Yet oddly enough it was Malthus (PN), the academician [#13], [Adj. to "Malthus"

[#14] who was interested (P) {in the facts} {of the real world}], and Ricardo (PN), the

man [#15] {of affairs}, [Adj. to "Ricardo" who was the theoretician (PN)] [#16]; | the

businessman cared only {for invisible "laws"} | and the professor worried [DO of 

"worried" [#17] whether these laws fitted the world (DO) {before his eyes}]. | And {as

a final contradiction}, it was Malthus (PN) {with his modest income} [Adj. to "Malthus"

who defended the wealthy landowner (DO)], and Ricardo (PN), a man [#15] {of 

wealth} and later [#18] a landlord [#15] himself [#15], [Adj. to "Ricardo" who fought

{against their interests}]. |

1. The infinitive phrase based on "to imagine" functions as a delayed subject. "Persons" is the direct object of "to imagine," and "separated" is a gerundive to "persons." (Some people may prefer to see "persons separated" as a noun absolute that functions as the direct object of "to imagine.")
2. The "than" phrase chunks to the preceding "more." (Some people will prefer to explain this phrase as an ellipsed clause -- "than Thomas Robert Malthus and David Ricardo *were separated.*")
3. Most grammar textbooks would probably explain this clause as an adverb to the following "was," but in meaning, it functions as an interjection.
4. Rhetoricians would call this a parenthetical clause -- it basically adds interesting, but non-essential information. Grammatically, we can consider it to be a clause that functions as an interjection.
5. "Expressing" is a gerund that functions as the object of the preposition "for"; "wish" is the direct object of "expressing."
6. The infinitive "to work" can be explained either as an adverb to "went" ("Went where?") or as the direct object of "went." ("Went to work" means "began to work.")
7. Not every semicolon separates contrasting ideas.
8. Gerundive to "he."
9. Gerundive to "college."
10. "Administrators" is the direct object of the infinitive "to train." The infinitive phrase functions as an adverb to "founded."
11. The dashes that separate this clause provide a greater degree of separation that the normal commas and thus emphasize the difference between the small amount that Ricardo started with and the large amount that he ended up with. For more on this aspect of punctuation, see Dawkins' "Hierarchy of Functional Punctuation Marks" in "The KISS Approach to Teaching Punctuation."
12. "Estimated" is a gerundive to "fortune"; "worth" is a predicate adjective after the infinitive "to be." The infinitive phrase functions as an adverb to "estimated."
13. Appositive to "Malthus."
14. Although this clause can easily be considered an adjective to "Malthus," note how close the construction is to the Delayed Subject.
15. Appositive to "Ricardo."
16. Note the parallel construction in this main clause:
It was Malthus, appositive, [Sub clause], and
          Ricardo, appositive, [Sub clause].
Except for the appositive to "Malthus," this parallel pattern is repeated in the last sentence in the selection.
     Note also that in the first paragraph, the semicolons are primarily used to alternate between statements about Malthus and Ricardo. The single semicolon in this paragraph separates a comparison of Malthus and Ricardo (in which the statements are joined by "and") from a variation of that comparison (in which the statements are joined by "and").
17. Some people will prefer to see this clause as an adverb to "worried."
18. Appositives can be viewed as reductions of subordinate clauses. Thus the adverbial function of  "later" can be explained as modifying the ellipsed "was" in the ellipsed clause -- "Ricardo, *who was* a man of wealth and *who was* later a landlord himself."