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A Study in Appositives
from Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights
Analysis Key

Note: The punctuation of this text differs in different editions. This version is from the 1959 Signet Classic edition, Chapter 22, pages 220-221.

      {On an afternoon} {in October}, or {*in* the beginning} {of November} 

-- a fresh watery afternoon [#1], [Adj. to "afternoon" [#2] when the turf 

and paths were rustling {with moist, withered leaves}], and [Adj. to

"afternoon" [#2] *when* the cold blue sky was half [NuA] hidden (P) 

{by clouds} -- dark grey streamers [#3], rapidly mounting [#4] {from the

west}, and boding [#4] abundant rain] -- I requested my young lady

to forego her ramble [#5] [Adv. (cause) to "requested" because I was 

certain (PA) {of showers}]. | She refused, | and I unwillingly 

donned a cloak (DO), and took my umbrella (DO) to accompany

her [#6] {on a stroll} {to the bottom} {of the park}, a formal walk [#7] [Adj.

to "walk" which she generally affected [Adv. (condition) to "affected" if 

*she was* low-spirited (PA) ]] | -- and that (PN) [#8] she invariably 

was [Adv. (time) to "was" when Mr. Edgar had been worse (PA)

{than ordinary} ], a thing [#9] never known [#10] {from his confession}, but 

guessed [#10] both [#11] {by her and me} {from his increased silence and the

melancholy} {of his countenance}. |

1. This "afternoon" is an appositive to the previous "afternoon."
2. Alternatively, these two "when" clauses could be viewed as adverbial to "requested," which is what the "On an afternoon" chunks to.
3. "Streamers" is an appositive to "clouds."
4. "Mounting" and "boding" are verbals (gerundives) that modify "streamers"--and thus also "clouds." "Rain" is the direct object of "boding."
5. "Lady" is the subject, and "ramble" is the direct object of the verbal (infinitive) "to forego." The infinitive phrase is the direct object of "requested."
6. "Her" is the direct object of the infinitive "to accompany." The infinitive phrase functions as an adverb of purpose to "took."
7. "Walk" is an appositive to "stroll."
8. Here we have an unusual case of a pronoun that clearly stands for an adjective. I would not argue with anyone who wanted to designate "that" a predicate adjective here.
9. "Thing: here means "Mr. Edgar being worse than ordinary." Thus it can be seen as an appositive to the entire preceding clause. Note how similar this is to the "which" that can refer to a preceding clause. See KISS Level  3.2.4 - "Tag" and Other Questions about Clauses.
10. "Known" and "guessed" are gerundives that modify "thing." 
11. According to Merriam-Webster, "both" functions as a pronoun, conjunction, or adjective. Perhaps the easiest explanation here is to consider it a conjunction with the "and."