Main Printable Workbooks Page Grade Two Workbook
The study of grammar is a science.
The teaching of grammar is an art.

Introduction to the KISS Grade-Level Workbooks

      Because this is the first workbook in the KISS grade-level sequence, some comments are in order about what KISS is and how it works. KISS is a specific set of grammatical terms (concepts) and a sequence for teaching them such that students will be able to use them to understand and intelligently discuss how any English sentence (including their own) works.
     KISS is heavily based on 1) research, 2) theory, 3) logic, and 4) common sense. This book, however, focuses on the practical. But to achieve KISS objectives, parents and teachers should have at least a minimal understanding of the theories that KISS is built on. These are discussed in more detail in the separate Introduction to KISS Grammar and in the instructional books for each of the five KISS levels, so the following are simply short explanations.

Some Crucial Pedagogical Concepts

Vygotsky's "Zone of Proximal Development"

     Lev Vygotsky, a famous educational theorist, argued that any educational sequence should be based on what he called the "zone of proximal development." He visualized this with two concentric circles. The inner circle symbolizes knowledge that the child has already mastered. The area between the two circles is the "zone," and the area beyond the outer circle represents concepts that the child simply will not be able to understand until the material within the "zone" has been mastered. In math, for example, multiplication makes no sense to a child who cannot understand addition, and algebra makes no sense to a student who cannot understand multiplication.
     KISS is built on this concept. The major problem in almost all current instruction in grammar, for example, is that students are taught what subjects and verbs are, but they are not taught how to identify subjects and verbs in real sentences, including those that they write. Subjects and verbs are the core of English sentences, and thus students who cannot identify them have little chance of understanding more advanced questions of grammar. Within KISS, a clause is defined as a subject/verb/complement pattern and all the words that modify it. Students who have not mastered the ability to identify subjects, verbs, and complements, will find clauses to be unreachable.

Bruner's "Spiral Curriculum"

     Vygotsky's "zone" is intimately connected to Jerome Bruner's concept of a "spiral curriculum." Within such a curriculum, "ideas are first presented in a form and language, honest though imprecise, which can be grasped by the child, ideas that can be revisited later with greater precision and power until, finally, the student has achieved the reward of mastery." (On Knowing, 107-8). Within the work for second grade, a simple example of this is the introduction of complements. "Complement" is an inclusive word for predicate adjectives, predicate nouns, indirect and direct objects. To find a complement, all a student has to do is to learn to ask the question "Whom or what?" after a verb, as opposed, for example, to the questions "Where?" "When?" "Why" or "How?" Later, once the students have become comfortable with identifying complements, they can learn how to distinguish the types of complements (predicate adjectives, predicate nouns, indirect and direct objects).

Alternative Explanations

    Some people (including some grammarians) believe that there should be one and only one explanation of how any word fits in a sentence. Among themselves, however, grammarians disagree as to what these explanations should be. Within KISS, your students will be learning how to analyze sentences from real texts. In so doing, people will see things differently. Consider, for example, the following sentence from Aesop's "The Ant and the Grasshopper"

I am helping to lay up food for the winter.
Does the prepositional phrase "for the winter" function as an adjective to "food" or as an adverb to "to lay up"? In one sense, it functions as both. Thus, within KISS, some students will explain it as an adjective, and other students will explain it as an adverb. Either explanation should be accepted. The validity of an explanation depends on its making sense to the people who are using it. That includes both the person making the explanation and the people to whom it is being explained.

Exercises Should Be Based on Real Texts

     KISS focuses an enabling students to analyze and meaningfully discuss real sentences in real texts. The best way to reach that objective is to create exercises that are based on real texts. Using real texts is important for three reasons. First, if the students are reading the texts as they do the exercises, they will see for themselves that the grammar they are learning clearly relates to what they read and write. 
     Second, exercises that are created from such texts automatically provide an instructional focus. Which helping verbs, for example, do students really need to know? Most grammar textbooks simply provide a list of helping verbs. Students are expected to learn these with no context provided. But the early exercises in this book, for example, are based on the stories in Mary Frances Blaisdell's Bunny Rabbit's Diary. The helping verbs "ought" and "dare" simply do not appear in the book. "Can," "could," "would," and "should," however, appear fairly frequently. If, at the end of second grade, some students still do not recognize "ought" as a part of a verb phrase, is their failure to do so a major problem? I would suggest not. On the other hand, at the end of second grade, every student should be able to recognize "can," "could," "would" and "should."
     Another way of looking at this is in terms of Vygotsky's two circles, but in this case consider the center circle to represent the most frequently used examples of the concept. The area between the two circles then represents the less frequently used examples (such as "must" and "need"), and the area outside the circle represents the rarely used examples (such as "dare" and "ought"). As students learn how to analyze real sentences, surely the examples in the inner circle are the most important. In this sense, exercises that are created based on real texts limit the amount of material that the students have to master at a given time.
     The third reason for using real texts is to expand the instructional material that students need to master at a given time. A simple example of this is words such as "begin," "start," and "stop" as helping verbs. Most grammar textbooks pay little attention to these words, but students will read (and write) these words far more frequently than they do "dare" and "ought." Thus KISS, again using Bruner's concept of the spiral curriculum, introduces these words to second graders as "helping" verbs. (For more on this, see the notes for the exercises on helping verbs.)
     The "helping" verbs are just one example of how text-based exercises expand instruction.
Here again Vygotsky's two circles can help explain what is involved, but in this case the center circle represents the simplest form of a concept, and the area between the circles represents the variations that are found in real texts. In presenting direct objects, for example, most textbooks provide only simple S/V/DO patterns--"I like him." Exercises based on real texts, however, will include sentences such as "Him I like." 
     Ideally, students can read a story or poem and then do exercises that are based on it. They can, of course, also discuss the story or poem as a story or poem, and they can even write about it. My intention is to collect the stories used in this book and some suggestions for writing about them in a separate MS Word document. My guess, however, is that once classroom teachers become familiar with the KISS Approach and objectives, they will replace many of the exercises given here with exercises on other works that their students are reading. Of course the exercises can be done without reference to the texts upon which they are based.

Tell Students that They Are Expected to Make Mistakes

     The preceding explanations should have suggested that within the KISS approach, students are almost always expected to make mistakes. As you work your way into KISS exercises, you will see which mistakes students are expected to make, and why. But the pedagogical principle involved needs to be explained here. Learning (as opposed to memorizing) always involves some confusion and thus some mistakes. All native speakers of English taught themselves the language. (How could anyone explain it if the child did not understand the language in the first place?) In doing so, they learned the core concepts first and made mistakes with those in the outer circle. As children, for example, we all said, "We cutted the paper." Only after we mastered the basic rule ("-ed" for past tense) did we begin to distinguish the irregular cases.
     Two comments of a parent (whose child was doing the early exercises in this book) illustrate how this applies to second grade. She noted, for example that her child had a problem with the tenth sentence in Exercise # 7. The sentence is "He melted the snow in the warm hollows." At this point in instruction, the students are expected to identify only the subject and the verb. As the parent explained, the student "didn't want to mark the verb as 'melted,' because he himself didn't melt. She decided the whole verb had to be 'melted the snow,' because without the DO, the verb just didn't make sense to her." If I had been working with this student, I would have said something such as, "That's very good thinking. Actually, 'the snow' is a type of complement, a direct object, and we will be studying them later this year."
     The second comment involved the first sentence in Exercise # 9. The sentence is, "And before long the sound of the axe rang out through the stillness." Even after the mother explained that "sound" is the subject, the student remained "convinced  in her own mind that it was the axe that did the ringing." As in the previous case, the student's confusion resulted from a construction that will be studied later in second grade--in this case prepositional phrases. Here again I would have pointed out that her answer made sense, but that "axe" is in a prepositional phrase (which she will be studying later) and thus cannot be the subject.
     There is, of course, the question of grading. I have already suggested that most exercises should be reviewed in class, and not be graded. But even if these two exercises were graded, it appears that the student had no problem with nine of the ten sentences in each exercise, and in the sentences that did cause problems, the student got half perfectly correct (in the first, the subject, and in the second, the verb). Thus the student was apparently 95% perfectly correct. 
   That 5% confusion is, I would argue, a pedagogical necessity. We learn most from examples, not from definitions. But it is very easy to look at simple examples without thinking. Within KISS, exercises provide the most important instruction, and some of the exercises should confuse the students. We are going to be asking these students to analyze randomly selected sentences from real texts, including their own writing. There will be points that confuse them, and the sooner they learn that they are expected to make mistakes, the better off they will be. 
     Most of the exercises in KISS workbooks include "Answer Keys" followed by "Complete Analysis Keys." The "Answer Keys" suggest what you should expect from students. They include both mistakes that you should expect and some alternative explanations. The "Complete Analysis Keys" provide the rest of a complete KISS explanation of the text. These are intended to enable you to answer any questions that students may have about other words. (For example, about the sentence "Bobby slept all night," a student might ask what "night" is. The complete analysis key enables you to say, "'Night' is a noun that is used as an adverb. You'll be studying those later.") Of course the complete analysis keys also enable you to use exercises for additional purposes. Thus, for example, you might want to introduce the types of complements before they are introduced in this book. The complete keys will give you the KISS explanations of the complements in the earlier exercises.

Printable Books vs. On-line Versions

     KISS books are developed on-line, and are then modified into printable documents. The substance of each "book" is the same, but each version has advantages and disadvantages. In the on-line versions, each exercise, analysis key, original text, and instructional handout is a separate document. Thus teachers and parents can simply choose (and print) what they want. The on-line versions also include hyperlinks from analysis keys to explanations of advanced constructions. Such hyperlinks will not work, of course, in printable versions, so they are eliminated. (If you are interested in these explanations, you can find them all in the instructional materials for the five KISS levels.) The printable versions also make it much easier to come to the web site once, download a book for a specific year, and have everything you need.

to the Workbook for 
  Grade Two

The Objectives for Grade Two

     The primary objective for second grade is to make the identification of subjects, verbs, complements, adjectives, adverbs, compounds, and simple prepositional phrases almost  automatic. In addition, students should begin to see how all the words within a "sentence" fit together adjectives, adverbs and prepositional phrases function as modifiers of the words in the S/V/C pattern. This will enable students to more easily understand the more complicated constructions as they are introduced in later years. Given relatively simple sentences, second graders should have little trouble reaching this objective. 

Suggestions for Using this Book

     Some of the instructional material in this book is included within exercises. In addition, exercises are at least paired, and in most cases several similar exercises follow in sequence, all aimed at the same objective. For example, the first three exercises are all on "What is a sentence?" Parents and teachers may want to go over the first exercise with students and then assign the second, third, etc. 
     Some exercises (such as five and six) focus on punctuation, but then the focus returns to the identification of subjects and verbs. There are thousands of verbs in English, and it will take students a fair amount of practice to be able to identify them. The KISS Approach, however, is cumulative -- students will always identify the subjects and verbs in the sentences they are analyzing. Thus there is no major problem in moving on in the sequence if some students in a class are still having problems. Because some students will need more practice than others, there is no "ideal" number of exercises on a specific focus that can be included within a book. But once you see how the KISS Approach works, you can go to the website for additional exercises, or, better yet, have students create exercises for each other.

The Importance of the Different Types of KISS Exercises

     Identification exercises are the heart of KISS grammar. If students cannot identify subjects, verbs, prepositional phrases, etc. in real sentences, then anything else they are taught is meaningless -- the students will be unable to apply it effectively to the sentences that they read and write. ID exercises are short, and should take students not more than five minutes to do. KISS punctuation exercises are also short, and almost always consist of real texts from which the punctuation (and capitalization) has been stripped. The students are asked to "fix" the text, after which you can show them the original and discuss why the original is punctuated as it is. In Recipe Rosters, students are asked to write sentences that include specific constructions; in Treasure Hunts, they need to find sentences that contain specific constructions within either a variety of different texts or in one text. Treasure Hunts will take more time on the students' part, but they are very important because they make the students see that what they are learning applies to all the texts that they read.
     Sentence-combining and/or manipulation exercises become more frequent in later grades, but even in second grade they can often help students learn to revise what they have written. It is not uncommon to see second (and third) graders write something like "I live in a big house. It is brown. It is on Maple Street." One reason for this type of writing is that the students are searching for things to say. As each idea pops into mind, it gets written down as a separate sentence. Combining exercises can thus help students revise this into "I live in a big brown house on Maple Street." Note that you can create additional combining exercises simply by taking sequences of sentences from your students' writing. Students can also be asked to create such exercises for  each other.
     Once students have a basic ability to identify a construction, perhaps the most useful and important exercise for second graders is to have them create an exercise. Give them a short text and have them create an exercise comparable to the exercises that they have just been doing. See, for examples, exercises 10, 20, 40, 61, 79, 83, and 110 in this book. Note that exercises 21 and 22 in this book consist of having students make an answer key for their exercises (22), and then doing each others' exercises (23). I have not repeated these exercises because you can obviously apply them to any student-created exercises. These exercises are important for several reasons. First, we learn most when we teach, and these exercises make the students the teachers. Second, the students will here also be making a connection between what they read and the grammar that they are learning. Third, teachers can use these exercises to replace many of the exercises in this book. (Remember that a KISS assumption is that students will be doing exercises based texts that they are actually reading. Ultimately, this book itself is just an example of what can be done and suggestions for doing it.)
     The ten "Assessment" quizzes are intended for use at the end of the year, but you can, of course, use them at any time. Note that the format of these quizzes differs from that of other exercises. In assessment quizzes, students are asked to identify the words in the subject / verb  complement pattern and then to explain how other words in the sentence connect to the words in that pattern. This is the standard format of all KISS assessment quizzes. For second grade, students will be working with isolated, and very simple sentences. At this level of instruction, the difficulty in creating these quizzes is in finding sequential passages that do not include advanced constructions. In upper grade levels, more of the assessment quizzes are based on a single, real paragraph. (In the upper levels of KISS, the difficulty in creating assessment quizzes is in finding paragraphs that do include advanced constructions.)

The Sequence of Instruction

    The exercises in this book are spread across twelve instructional objectives. Students should probably do two or three exercises a week. Note that instruction should be spread across the entire school year. Otherwise, students will forget what they have previously learned. (Use it, or lose it.)
     Although students should be able to do most of these exercises in less than five minutes, reviewing exercises in class will take longer. Rather than "correcting" these assignments, however, teachers should, as a general rule, review them in class. Not only will this approach save the teacher's sanity, it will also help students master the concepts. One enjoyable way to do this is to use the KISS Grammar Game. (It is explained in An Introduction to KISS Grammar.) In-class review of exercises, especially using the grammar game, is also an excellent motivator. Currently, most people hate studying (or teaching) grammar. In part, that is because of poor instructional materials. Most students, however, will catch on to the KISS approach rather quickly. And in-class review will show the other students not only that their classmates are "getting it," but also that they are enjoying it. 
     Note also that having students do short exercises even after they have mastered the relevant concepts tends to increase students' enjoyment and motivation. Doing what we can do well is enjoyable, especially if it is something that we are supposed to be able to do and it only takes five minutes. Take the attitude that KISS exercises are short puzzles. Students will be able to solve them, and the more of them they solve, the stronger their confidence will be.
     Although some exercises should be done as homework, teachers might want to have students, as a class, do some exercises, especially exercises that introduce a new concept.. Instead of giving each student a copy of these exercises, you can simply make an overhead transparency. 

Notes for Teachers

     The following are more complete notes about the various objectives, the logic behind them, and what you should expect from students. [In the printable version, these appear before the analysis keys for each section.]

1. Subjects, Verbs and Sentences

     These exercises are a brief introduction (or review) on what a simple sentence is.

2. The Punctuation of a Sentence

     For second graders, this may be a review of basic punctuation, but it also establishes the KISS rules for punctuation and capitalization. (Note that additional punctuation exercises are spread throughout the exercises.)

3. Recognizing Single-Word Verbs (and their Subjects)

     The focus here is to enable students to identify single-word verbs in simple sentences.

4. Adding Simple Complements

     A "complement" answers the question "whom or what?" after a verb. Having some experience with single-word verbs, students can add complements to their analytical toolbox. KISS Grammar is cumulative. From this point on, therefore, students will identify the subjects, verbs, and complements in every sentence that they analyze. Introducing complements at this point therefore means that students will be able to get more practice (and the sentences will make more sense) as they work on "Verb Phrases."
     Complements are not really difficult, but some students have problems distinguishing the "whom or what?" question from other questions such as "Where?" "When?" "Why?" or "How?" Getting students accustomed to this difference in questions will make it easier for them to understand adverbs and later to distinguish the types of complements.

5. Verb Phrases

      The objective here is to help students include all the helping verbs (also known as "auxiliary verbs") when they underline verbs. The exercises break this section into parts by first presenting tense auxiliaries, then modal auxiliaries, and finally an "other" group. (See below.). This division is primarily intended to organize the presentation of the material. In other words, attempting to make second graders remember which verbs are "tense" and which are "modals" may confuse them more than help. The KISS objective is to have students work with the tense auxiliaries ("is playing," "had been sleeping," "does read," etc. until their recognition is almost automatic. Then add the modals ("can," "could," "would," etc.), and finally, the "other" group.
      The tense auxiliaries are a matter of general agreement among grammarians (although some grammarians claim that English does not have a future tense). Grammarians disagree (among themselves) about what modals are and about which verbs should be included in the category, but the KISS objective is simply to help students learn that in a sentence such as "Bobtail must like nuts," "must" is part of the verb phrase. 
     KISS includes an "other" category because it is easier for students, at this level, to view these words as helping verbs. In their writing, and in their reading, students will frequently find sentences such as:

She started to swim.
Bobby Duck stopped talking.
We liked to play.
Suzie wanted to leave.
Technically, these are finite verbs that have verbs (verbals) as their direct object. At this point, however, our objective is to help second graders identify verbs that function as verbs within a sentence. Introducing verbs that function as nouns will probably confuse more students than it helps. Both Bruner's "spiral curriculum" and Vygotsky's "zone of proximal development" suggest that there is no problem, especially in the first three KISS Levels, in having the students underline "started to swim," "stopped talking," etc. as verbs. Once they get to verbals in KISS Level Four, few if any students will have difficulty in re-seeing these verb formations as a finite verb plus a verb that functions as a direct object.

Problems to Expect

     "Not" is a frequently used adverb that often appears in the midst of a verb phrase--"They did not stop." Because the exercises are based on real sentences, no attempt was made to eliminate sentences with "not" from these early exercises, even though adverbs are not introduced until section seven. At this point in their work, therefore, you can tell students that "'Not' is never a verb and should never be underlined," or you can simply let them underline it until they get to section seven.
     The "other" category of "helping" verbs may introduce a problem if you are having students analyze randomly selected sentences. The forty sentences in the exercises in this section were all taken from Blaisdell's Bunny Rabbit's Diary, but in collecting them I also collected the following six sentences:

She did not stop to talk to Bunny.
She did not stop to catch any of the little bugs.
Every few minutes he stopped to hunt for some hidden nut. 
The little squirrel stopped to take another sniff. 
North Wind came to help him. 
Bunny ran to find Mother Rabbit. 
In these sentences, "stop," "came," and "ran" are the finite verbs (the verbs that should be underlined twice) and the infinitives ("to" plus a verb) answer the question "Why?" not "What?" Note, for example, the difference between:
She did not stop to talk to Bunny.
She did not stop talking to Bunny.
If you are creating your own exercises (or having students create them) expect problems here and ignore (for purposes of grading)  any errors that students make.

6 - Identifying Nouns, Pronouns, Adjectives, & Adverbs 

     Here we enter the swamp into which most grammar textbooks sink. Most people are not interested in the theoretical questions involved in the definitions of the parts of speech, but we need to note that those questions can become somewhat complex and confusing. As a simple example, some textbooks consider "his" to be a pronoun; others consider it to be an adjective. Most of the confusion results from the grammarians' focus on categories rather than on how the words actually function in sentences.
     Because there is no national standard curriculum, and because in some schools kindergarten students are taught to identify basic nouns, verbs, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs, KISS at this point simply needs to establish the concept of "noun." The instructional material is intentionally basic, primarily because KISS depends on the exercises to reinforce and expand the concepts. 
     It makes sense to introduce pronouns at this point, primarily because they appear frequently in what the students will be reading and writing. The instructional material has been limited to the most commonly used pronouns. Giving second graders a list that includes less commonly used pronouns, such as "whoever," "whosoever," "whichever," "whatever," and "whatsoever," would probably confuse more students than it will help. The KISS objective for second grade is not to have students remember these words as "pronouns," but rather to help students recognize these words when they appear as subjects, complements, or, later in the year, as objects of prepositions. 
     Some grammars consider words like "his," "her," "its," "our" and "their" as possessive pronouns; others consider them adjectives. Within KISS, we focus on the functions of words, and possessive pronouns, like possessive nouns, function as adjectives. Thus, in KISS, these words are considered adjectives.
     Note that this section includes the instructional material for adjectives and adverbs, but only four exercises. One exercise focuses on identifying adjectives, one on identifying adverbs. The other two are writing exercises, one for adjectives and one for adverbs. The reason for this is that the next section provides numerous exercises on adding adjectives and adverbs to the students' analytical toolbox.

7. More Practice with Adjectives and Adverbs

     Once students have a general introduction to nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs, they will need some practice exercises to solidify these concepts, particularly adjectives and adverbs. However, once students do have a command of adjectives and adverbs, having them identify them in every exercise is not necessary. Indeed, it can become boring. Thus the exercises in this section do require the students to draw an arrow from every adjective and from every adverb to the word it modifies. After this group of exercises, adjectives and adverbs are ignored except for special cases that are explained in the analysis keys.

8. Compounds

     In a sentence such as "Bill likes baseball and football," many students will mark "baseball" as a complement, but ignore "football." Compounding is a relatively simple concept, and by introducing it at this point, sentences with compound subjects, verbs, and/or complements can be used in the exercises on prepositional phrases.

9. Adding Simple Prepositional Phrases

     In a sentence such as "One of the boys is here," some students will see "boys" as the subject of "is." This interference from prepositional phrases ("of the boys") causes numerous problems, so, in order to identify subjects and verbs, students need to learn to identify prepositional phrases. There are about sixty words that can function as prepositions, so learning to identify these phrases takes some practice. (Mastering some of the complications in these phrases is an objective for grade three.)

10. "You" Understood as the Subject

     This is relatively simple, but it does need to be explained to students.

11 - Sentence Combining  & Style

     These introductory and simple combining exercises are intended to improve students' ability to change sentences once they are written.

12. Distinguishing Complements

      I was asked to provide more extensive material, beyond the basic Instructional Material for Distinguishing Complements. My initial response was "No," but I should amend that response, both by explaining the logic behind it and also by adding some possibilities.
     To begin, we need to ask why students need to distinguish complements in the first place. The answer to that question is that the ability to distinguish complements can improve both their reading and their writing. It does so most clearly by enabling them to identify predicate nouns. Note that, within KISS, the way that students learn to identify a predicate noun is first to eliminate the predicate adjective, and then to ask 1.) if the complement is, in some way, equal to the subject and 2) if the verb in any ways means "equals." This important "equality" of the predicate noun and the subject is rarely explored in traditional grammars. The result is often poor reading and poor writing.
     As a simple example, a student wrote, "Often the practice rooms are the only time one can be alone." A room, however, is a place, not a time.  One of my favorite examples of this problem with the logic of predicate nouns is still

"The taste of a sizzling foot-long hotdog coated with tangy sauerkraut with mounds of pickle relish is a typical snack when accompanied by a tall, chilled paper cup of Coke."
The hotdog may be a tasty snack, but a taste is not. This example, by the way, suggests why the S/V/PN may continue to be a problem for some students as their sentences naturally become more complex and as more words fall between the subject and verb or between the verb and the complement.
      That still leaves open the question of how to teach students to recognize complements. In essence, KISS uses a logical process, a sequence of questions to arrive at the type of the complement, thereby side-stepping the traditional "transitive," "intransitive," and "linking" verbs. What's wrong with the traditional approach?
     The simple answer to that question is that it is ultimately useless, perhaps even confusing,  if one's objective is to teach students how to analyze real texts. We'll skip the problems with "transitive" and "intransitive," and simply look at how most grammar textbooks explain "linking verbs." First of all, most textbooks explain that linking verbs take predicate adjectives or predicate nouns, and not direct or indirect objects. They also explain that the verb "be," ("am," "are," "is," "was," and "were") when it is used as the primary verb (and not as a helping verb) is a linking verb. (Are you getting all of this? If you are, many students won't. I've had students mark "working" as a predicate noun in the sentence "He is working in the garden.")
     Having explained the preceding, most textbooks give a list of additional verbs that may function as linking verbs. Since you may want to use it, the following example is from Paul Roberts' Understanding Grammar (N.Y.: Harper & Row, 1954, 115-116):
     Though be is the most common linking verb in Modern English, many others are in common use. The following are illustrative:
The weather seems nasty.
The weather became nasty.
The weather turned nasty.
The weather continued nasty.
The difficulties loomed large.
His love grew cold.
The pie tasted foul.
Don't feel bad.
The cow ran dry.
Hurry and get well.
You can probably find other verbs included in other books. No such list claims to be complete, and that is the problem. What are students supposed to do when the verb in the sentence they are analyzing (or writing) is not on the list? Note, for example, that one of the exercises for Grade Two includes the sentence "Perhaps he can keep awake." "Keep" is not on Roberts' list, but it functions as a linking verb in this sentence, and "awake" is a predicate adjective.
     In another of his grammar books, Roberts discusses the problem. He uses "grow" as an example, as in:
a..) Tom grew quickly.
b.) Tom grew tall.
c.) Tom grew tomatoes.
In (a.) "grew" is intransitive; in (b.) it is linking; and in (c.) it is transitive. How do we know that? Ultimately, the grammarians end up using  the basic KISS instructional material on the types of complements. (Or should I say that KISS instructional material is based on what grammarians themselves do to determine the types of verbs and complements?)  In (a.) there is no complement. (Thus the verb is intransitive.) In (b.) the complement is an adjective that describes "Tom." (Thus the verb is "linking.") In (c.) there is a complement, but it neither describes, nor is it equal to, "Tom." (Thus the verb is transitive.)
     In order to analyze real sentences, students are going to have to master the KISS instructional sequence. You can, if you wish, use the preceding information to give students additional instruction, but I suggest caution. First, it may cause more confusion than it is worth. Second, too much focus on knowing that word "x" can be a linking verb may easily detract from the more important instruction on knowing how to decide what type of complement is involved. Instructors of math (and professors of electronics) regularly complain that students are too focused on what the answer is (the "that") and thus the students fail to learn the process (the "how") to work one's way to the correct answer. The basic KISS instructional material on the types of complements is, in addition, an introduction to procedures that will be used later within KISS, but it is also important instruction in learning how to learn.
Assessment Quizzes for Second Grade

     Parents or others who are working with a limited number of students probably will not need formal assessments to know what their students do and do not understand. Classroom teachers, however, have to deal with many students at a time. They also may need to report the results of formal assessments, especially since the results of such assessment can be used to modify objectives and methods for future instruction. 
     The KISS assessment quizzes for second grade are designed to include only core examples such that all students can be expected to get everything right. (For example, "dare" and "ought" do not appear in them as helping verbs because they are used so infrequently that we probably should not expect second graders to remember them in addition to all the other materials that they have been presented with during this year.)
     The quizzes consist of selected sentences that should, as a whole, include 

1. ) one predicate adjective, one predicate noun, one indirect object,
2.)  one understood "you," 
3.) one compound (subject, verb, or complement) and 
4.) several prepositional phrases. 
     The format for KISS assessment quizzes remains fairly standard from second grade through eleventh. Students are given a numbered sequence of sentences, and are asked to identify the subjects, verbs, and complements (as they do in most exercises). The sentences are followed by other words selected from the sentences, and students are asked to "explain how that word grammatically connects to the subject, verb, or complement." Note that the words are presented in a specific sequence that moves further and further from the main pattern. For example:

They had stored away nuts (DO) and acorns (DO) in little holes in the ground.

The students might first be asked to explain "holes." The expected answer would be that "holes" is the object of the preposition "in," and that the prepositional phrase functions as an adverb to "had stored." (I allow students to use abbreviations and incomplete sentences in these responses -- "obj. of 'in'; pp. is adv. to 'had stored'.") Next, they might be asked to explain "little." Because they have already explained how "holes" connects to the pattern, all they need to write for "little" is that it is an adjective to "holes." Similarly, asked to explain "ground," all they need to write is that it is the object of "in," and that prepositional phrase functions as an adjective to "holes." 
     Point values may differ from quiz to quiz, but as a general rule for second grade:

Every word that functions as, or as part of, a subject or verb is worth three points.
Every complement is worth one point; its type is worth one more.
The explanation of each listed word is worth one point.

It is not necessary to test every word in every sentence, so the listed words are selected to bring the point value of the quiz to 100 points. For a specific example, see the first assessment quiz based on Blaisdell's Bunny Rabbit's Diary, and the key for it.) 
     You may want to consider deducting points for, for example, words that are underlined as verbs but that are not verbs. (I have seen college students underline "in" as a verb.) If the students have done most of the exercises in this book, spread across the school year, every student should be able to score at least a 95%. If they do not, you will probably find that students' scores will fall into an inverted bell curve--either they understand most of the material, or they are totally lost. 
     (I'd like to note here that most, if not all, of the students who are totally lost will be students who simply refuse to pay attention, memorize short definitions, and/or do the homework. This is easily documented. Teachers and school systems should be evaluated on what and how they teach, not on how many student pass or fail.)
For more background on KISS objectives and the theory behind them,
see the Introduction to KISS Grammar, and the Instructional Materials Organized into Five KISS Instructional Levels.