Updated 03/08/03
Pennsylvania College of  Technology Dr. Ed Vavra, Assoc. Prof. of Rhetoric

Bibliographies Section

Natural Language Development

Note: There is a massive amount of material on language development in pre-school children. Although some of this is relevant to teachers, most of it is not -- we do not need to teach children what they already know. (And that is precisely what many of the writers of such books and articles want to do.) Most of the items in this list are from the 70's or before. I need to catch up. [#1005 on my "To Do" list.] 

Anderson, John E. "An Evaluation of Various Indices of Linguistic  Development," Child Development, 8 (March, 1937), 62-68. (S=Hunt,  1965, p. 158.)

Athey, Irene. "Language Development Factors Related to Reading Development," Journal of Educational Research, 76 (1983), 197-203. (S=CE, 47 (1985),  122.)

Bateman, Donald R., and Frank J. Zidonis. (1966) The Effect of a Study of Transformational Grammar on the Writing of Ninth and Tenth Graders. NCTE Research Report No. 6. Urbana, Ill.: National Council of Teachers of English. [H,R]

[This study is often cited as demonstrating that instruction in grammar is useless or even harmful, but Bateman and Zidonis, having noted that their results are tentative, conclude that  "Even so, the persistently higher gain scores for the experimental class in every comparison made strengthens the contention that the study of a systematic grammar which is a theoretical model of the process of sentence production is the logical way to modify the process itself." (37) They further note that "the persistent tendency of researchers to conclude that a knowledge of grammar has no significant effect on language skills (when judgment should have been suspended) should certainly be reexamined." (37)]

Bear, Mata B. "Children's Growth in the Use of Written Language." Elementary English Review. 16 (December, 1939), 312-319. (S=Hunt,  1965, 158.)

Boyd, William. "The Development of Sentence Structure in Childhood." British Journal of Psychology (General Section), 17 (January, 1927),  181-191. (S=Hunt, 1965, 158.)

Braine, M. D. S. "Development of a grasp of transitivity of length: a reply to Smedslund." Child Development. 1964, 35, 799-810. [S=Kessel, 56]

Brause, Rita S. "Developmental Aspects of the Ability to Understand Semantic  Ambiguity, with Implications for Teachers," RTE, 11 (1977), 39-48. (S=CE,  Feb 8, 114.)

Brown, R.; Cazden, C.B.; & Bellugi-Klima, U. "The Child's Grammar from I to III." In J.P. Hill., ed. Minnesota Symposium on Child Psychology. Vol. 2. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1969. 28-73. [S=Kessel, 56]

Brueckner, L. "Language: The Development of Ability in Oral and Written  Composition." 38th Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. (1939), 225-240. (S=Hunt, 1965, 158.)

Bruner, J.S. "Mechanism riding high: a review of K.W. Spence, Behavior theory and conditioning." Contemporary Psychology, 1957, 2, 155-157. [S=Kessel, 56]

_____ ; Olver, R. R.; & Greenfield, P.M. et al. Studies in Cognitive Growth. NY: Wiley, 1966. [S=Kessel, 56]

Carroll, John B. "Determining and Numerating Adjectives in Children's  Speech." Child Development. 10 (1939), 215-229. (S=Hunt, 1965, 158.)

_____  and R.D. Freedle, eds. Language Comprehension and the Acquisition of Knowledge. Washington,D.C., 1972. 

_____ "Language Development," in Encyclopedia of Educational Research,  ed. Chester W. Harris. New York: Macmillan, 1960. 744-752. (S=Hunt,  1965, 158.)

Cazden, C.B. "The Acquisition of Noun and Verb Inflections." Child Development. 1968, 39, 433-448. [S=Kessel, 56]

Chafe, Wallace. "The Deployment of Consciousness in the Production of a Narrative." The Pear Stories: Cognitive, Cultural, and Linguistic Aspects of Narrative Production. Ed. Wallace Chafe. Norwood: Ablex, 1980. 9-51. (S=Pam Dykstra, ATEG Listserver)

- - -. "Linguistic Differences Produced by Differences Between Speaking and Writing." Literacy, Language, and Learning: The Nature and Consequences of Reading and Writing. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1985. 105-123. (S=Pam Dykstra, ATEG Listserver)

_____, and Jane Danielewicz. "Properties of Spoken and Written Language." Comprehending Oral and Written Language. Ed. Rosalind Horowitz and S. Jay Samuels. San Diego: Academic, 1987. 83-112.(S=Pam Dykstra, ATEG Listserver)

- - -. "Writing in the Perspective of Speaking." Studying Writing: Linguistic Approaches. Ed. Charles Cooper and Sidney Greenbaum. Beverly Hills: Sage, 1986. 12-39. (S=Pam Dykstra, ATEG Listserver)

Chomsky, Carol. The Acquisition of Syntax in Children from 5 to 10. Research Monograph No. 57. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1969. [S=Kessel, 56]

_____ "Developing Facility with Language Structure," in Discovering Language with Children, ed. Gay du Pinnell (Urbana, Ill.: NCTE, 1980),  56-59. (S=CE, 47 (1985), 125.)

Chomsky, Noam. "Formal Discussion." In U. Bellugi & R. Brown. eds. The Acquisition of Language. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 1964, 29 (1, Serial No. 92), 35-39.  [S=Kessel, 56]

_____ "Stages in Language Development and Reading Exposure." Harvard Educational Review, 42 (1972), 1-33. (S=CE, Feb 85, 113-114.)

Cooper, Charles, "Measuring Growth in Writing," English Journal 64 (1975),  111-20. [R]

Crowhurst, M., & Piche, G.L. (1979) Audience and mode of discourse effects on syntactic complexity in writing at two grade levels. Research in the Teaching of English, 13, 101-109. (S= Prater, "Cognitive, " 7)

Dale, Philip S. Language Development: Structure and Function. 2nd ed. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1976. 

Davis, Edith A. The Development of Linguistic Skill in Twins, Singletons with Siblings, and Only Children from Five to Ten Years. Institute of  Child Welfare Monograph Series, No. 14. Minneapolis: University of  Minnesota Press, 1937. (S=Hunt, 1965, 158.)

_____ "Mean Sentence Length Compared with Long and Short Sentences as a  Reliable Measure of Language Development," Child Development, 8  (1937), 69-79. (S=Hunt, 1965, 159.)

_____  "The Location of the Subordinate Clause in Oral and Written  Language," Child Development, 12 (December, 1941), 333-338. (S=Hunt,  1965, 159.)

Deese, J. "Behavior and Fact." American Psychologist, 1969, 24, 515-522.  [S=Kessel, 56]

Dilworth, C.B., Jr., Reising, R.W., & Wolfe, D.T. (1978) Language Structure & Thought in Written Composition, Certain Relationships. Research in the Teaching of English, 12, 97 - 106. (S= Prater, "Cognitive, " 7)

Dixon, T. R. & Horton, D. L. eds.  Verbal Behavior & General Behavior Theory. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1968. [S=Kessel, 56]

Donaldson, Margaret. Children's Minds. New York:Norton, 1979. (S=CE, 46  (No.8.), 1984, 748. Recommemded by Ann Berthoff.)

Edmaiston, R., and Larson, S. "An investigation of oral language and  writing proficiency in third grade students." Psychology in the Schools, 20 (3), 380-387. (S=RTE, Dec 84, 434. "Found that moderate  relationships existed [sic] between grammatical aspects of oral and  written language.)

Elley, Wm B., I.H. Barham, H. Lamb, & M. Wyllie. The Role of Grammar in a Secondary School Curriculum. NCTE: Wellington, New Zealand: Council for Educational Research, 1978. [H, R, N7]

     [This study began as a test  of the transformational grammar strand in the Oregon Curriculum.  Students were divided into three groups. The TG groups studied the TG strand in the Oregon curriculum; the LLE group used the "tradiional" grammar in Let's Learn English by P.R. Smart (35). The RW  group spent their time in additional reading and writing.
     Two observations are pertinent. First, the TG group appears to have spent its time learning the phrase structure and transformation rules of TG grammar (S --> NP + VP, etc.) They also apparently learned to make transformational tree diagrams. They were NOT, it appears, taught to use this information to analyze sentences from their reading and writing. This means that the results of this study are totally irrelevant to the KISS approach to grammar. Second, the statistical analysis of T-units, used to assess "writing quality," is very questionable. (For more on this, click here.)]

"Clearly, the Transformational Grammar section of the Oregon Curriculum is not liked." (67)

"The TG groups found sentence analysis 'useless', 'unimportant' and 'complicated'; the other two groups rated it positively on all these qualities. Once again, there is evidence that the TG strand of the Oregon Curriculum is not appreciated by the pupils" (68)

"Conclusion . . . From these findings, it is difficult to escape the conclusion that English grammar, whether traditional or transformational, has virtually no effect on the language growth of typical high school students. This conclusion applies to courses in transformational grammar, as taught in the Oregon Curriculum, and in the traditional grammar contained in the LLE series. In short, the TW pupils survived three years of schooling without any kind of formal grammar study, yet they performed just as well at the end of their fifth fom year on all conventional measures of writing and reading. The transformational gramnmar groups may have gained a slight advantage in exercises deliberately testing minor conventions of usage, and the combining of sentences (without using 'and'), but such competencies, if real, were not reflected in their actual writing performance. Moreover, this slight advantage was gained at the cost of a negative attitude towards formal language work. Scarcely any pupil completed the course with a favorable attitude towards grammar or its value." (71-2)

"Neither grammar group could be said to be writing in longer T-units than the RW students . . . ." (75)
Emig, J. (1975). The biology of writing: Another view of the process. In W. Petty, & P. Finn, (eds.), The Writing Processes of Students, 11 - 20. Proceedings of the first annual conference on the Language Arts. Buffalo, NY: State Univ. of NY at Buffalo. (S= Prater, "Cognitive, " 7)

Ervin, S. M. "Imitation and Structural Change in Children's Language." In E.H. Lenneberg. ed. New Directions in the Study of Language. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1964.  [S=Kessel, 56]

Ervin-Tripp, S.M., & Slobin, D.I. "Psycholinguistics". Annual Review of Psychology, 1966, 17, 435-474.  [S=Kessel, 56]

Falk, Julia S. "Language Acquisition and the Teaching and Learning of  Writing." CE, 41 (December, 1979), 446. (S=Kolln, "Closing," 150.)

Flavel, J. H. The Developmental Psychology of Jean Piaget. N.Y.: Van Nostrand, 1963.  [S=Kessel, 56]

_____; Botkin, P.T.; Fry, C.L.; Wright,J.W.; & Jarvin, P.E.. The Development of Role Taling and Communication Skills in Children. NY: Wiley, 1968.  [S=Kessel, 56]

_____. & Hill, J.P. "Developmental Psychology." Annual Review of Psychology, 1969, 20, 1-56.  [S=Kessel, 56]

_____, & Wohlwill, J. F. "Formal and Functional Aspects of Cognitive Development." In D. Elkind & J. H. Flavell eds. Studies in Cognitive Development: Essays in Honor of Jean Piaget. NY: Oxford UP, 1969. 67-120. [S=Kessel, 56]

Flood, James and Paula Menyuk. "Metalinguistic Development and Reading/Writing  Achievement." Claremont Reading Conference Yearbook, 46 (1982), 122-132.  (S=CE, 47 (1985), 122.)

Fodor, J. & Garrett, M. "Some Reflections on Competence and Performance." In J.L. Lyons & R.J. Wales. eds. Psycholinguistic Papers. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 1966. 135-154.  [S=Kessel, 56]

Foss, D.; Bever, T.G.; & Silver, M. "The Comprehension and Verification of Ambiguous Sentences." Perception and Psycholinguistics. 1968, 4, 304-306.  [S=Kessel, 56]

Fraser, C.; Bellugi, U.; & Brown, R. "Control of Grammar in Imitation, Comprehension and Production." Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. 1963, 2, 121-135.  [S=Kessel, 56]

Golub, L., & Kidder, C. (1974) Syntactic Density and the Computer. Elementary English, 51, 1128-1131. (S= Prater, "Cognitive, " 7)

Gruen, G. S. "Note on Conservation: Methodological and Definitional Considerations." Child Development. 1966, 37, 977-983.  [S=Kessel, 56]

Hakes, David T. "The Development of Metalinguistic Abilities: What Develops?"  in Language, Thought,and Culture Vol. II of Language Development, ed.  Stan Kuczaj, Jr. (Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1982) (S=CE, 47  (1985), 122.)

Harpin, William. The Second 'R': Writing Development in the Junior School. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1976. [Notes]

Harrell, Lester E., Jr. "A Comparison of the Development of Oral and  Written Language in School-Age Children," in Monographs of the Society  for Research in Child Development, 26, 3 (1957), 77pp. (S=Hunt, 1965,  159.)

Hoppes, William C. "Considerations on the Development of Children's  Language," Elementary English Review, 11 (March, 1934), 66-70. (S=Hunt, 1965, 159.)

Horowitz, Rosalind and S. Jay Samuels. "Comprehending Oral and Written Language: Critical Contrasts for Literacy and Schooling." Comprehending Oral and Written Language. San Diego: Academic, 1987. 1-46. (S=Pam Dykstra, ATEG Listserver)

Hoyt, Franklyn S. "Grammar in theElementary Curriculum." Teachers College Record, 7 (November, 1906), 473-494. (S=Kolln, "Closing," 150.)

Hunt, Kellogg, "Early Blooming and Late Blooming Syntactic Structures." In C.R. Cooper & L. Odell (eds.) Evaluating Writing: Describing, measuring, and judging. Urbana: NCTE, 1977. 91-104. [HXR -- gerundives and appositives are late bloomers]

_____ . and O'Donnell, R. An Elementary School Curriculum to Develop Better Writing Skills. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service NO. ED 050  108.) (S=RTE, 19, No.1 (Feb 85), 59.) 

_____ Grammatical Structures Written at Three Grade Levels. Research Report no. 3. (Urbana, Ill.:NCTE, 1965. First published in 1964 as Differences in grammatical structures written at three grade levels, the structures to be analyzed by transformational methods. Tallahasee: Florida State University, Project 1998, Cooperative Research Program, Office of Education, U.S. Departmetn of Health, Education and Welfare.) [HX,RN11: Bib   done--An excellent study!]

_____ et al., An Instrument to Measure Syntactic Maturity.   Tallahassee, Fla., 1968. 

_____ "Recent Measures in Syntactic Development," Elementary English. 43 (1966): 732-739.[HXR]

_____ Syntactic Maturity in School Children and Adults. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. 35 (1, Serial No. 134.) (S=RTE, 19 No. 1 (Feb 85), 59.)

_____ "Teaching Syntactic Maturity," in Language and the Language Arts. Ed. Johanna DeStefano & S.E. Fox. Boston: Little, Brown, 1974. 363-376. 

Inhelder, B.; Bovet, M.; Sinclair, H.; & Smock, C.D. "On Cognitive development." American Psychologist. 1966, 21, 160-164.  [S=Kessel, 57]

Jakobson, Roman. Child Language, Aphasia and Phonological Universals. The Hague: Mouton, 1972. [R, N7]

Joos, Martin. in Funk, H.D., and Triplett, D. (eds), Language Arts in the Elementary School: Readings (Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1972).

Kessel, Frank S. The Role of Syntax in Children's Comprehension from ages Six to Twelve. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development,  Serial No. 139, 1970 Vol 35. No.6  (Study of "Eager/easy to please,"  "asked/told" and sentence ambiguity.  Concluded that they develop in a set  sequence.) [R, B]

Kitzhaber, A. R., ed. The Oregon Curriculm. A Sequential Program in English (N.Y.: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1968.)

[Why Elley, Wm B., I.H. Barham, H. Lamb, & M. Wyllie would have thought that the language strand in the Oregon curriclum would improve students' writing is an open question. Its language strand simply adds transformational explanations to the traditional. It's no wonder that "The TG groups found sentence analysis 'useless', 'unimportant' and 'complicated';" For the Contents on this book, click here.]

Kroll, Barry. "Developmental Relationships between Speaking and Writing." Exploring Speaking-Writing Relationships. Urbana: National Council of Teachers of English, 1981. 32-54. (S=Pam Dykstra, ATEG Listserver)

LaBrant, Lou L. "Changing Sentence Structure of Children," Elementary English Review, 11 (March, 1934), 59-65, 85-86. (S=Hunt, 1965, 159.)

_____  "A Study of Certain Language Developments of Children in Grades  Four to Twelve, Inclusive," Genetic Psychology Monographs, 14  (November, 1933), 387-491. (S=Hunt, 1965, 159.)

Lakoff, Robin. "Some of My Favorite Writers are Literate: The Mingling of Oral and Literate Strategies in Written Communication." Spoken and Written Language: Exploring Orality and Literacy. Ed. Deborah Tannen. Norwood, Ablex, 1982. 239-259.(S=Pam Dykstra, ATEG Listserver)

Lenneberg, Eric. Biological Foundations of Language. NY: John Wiley, 1967.  (S=The Writer's Mind, 24.)

Loban, Walter, et al. Grammar and Writing. NY: Macmillan, 1981. 

_____ Language Development: Kindergarten through Grade Twelve.  Urbana, Ill.: NCTE, 1976. [HR, An extremely important study!]

_____ The Language of Elementary School Children: A Study of the Use and Control of Language and the Relations among Speaking, Reading, Writing, and Listening. NCTE Research Report No. 1. (Champaign, Ill.:  NCTE, 1963.) (S=Hunt, 1965, 159.)

_____, Margaret Ryan, and James B. Squire. Teaching Language and Literature, Grades Seven--Twelve. 2nd ed. NY:Harcourt Brace and  World, 1969. (S=Kolln, "Closing," 150.)

Long, Michael H. "Inside the 'Black Box': Methodological Issues in  Classroom Research on Language Learning," Language Learning, 30  (1980), 1-42. (S=CE, Feb 85, 115.)

Lovell, K. The Growth of Basic Masthematical and Scientific Concepts in Children. NY: PhilosophicalLibrary. 1961. [R, N7]

Lull, H.G. "The Speaking and Writing Abilities of Intermediate Grade  Pupils," Journal of Educational Research, 20 (June, 1929), 73-77.  (S=Hunt, 1965, 159.)

Luria, Alexander. Cognitive Development: Its Cultural and Social Foundations.  trans. Martin Lopez-Morillas and Lynn Solataroff, ed. Michale Cole.  Cambridg, Mass.: Harvard UP, 1976. (S=CE, 47 (1985), 129.)

MacKay, D. G. "To End Ambiguous Sentences." Perception and Psycholinguistics. 1966, I, 426-436.  [S=Kessel, 57]

_____. & Bever, T.G. "In Search of Ambiguity." Perception and Psycholinguistics. 1967, 2, 193-200.  [S=Kessel, 57]

McCarthy, Dorothea. "Language Development in Children," in Manual of Child Psychology, ed. Leonard Carmichael. NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1954.  (S=Hunt, 1965, 159.)

McNeill, D. The Acquisition of Language (New York: Harper and Row, 1970).

_____. "Developmental Psycholinguistics." In F. Smith & G.A. Miller eds. The Genesis of Language. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1966. 15-84. [S=Kessel, 57]

_____. "On Theories of Language Acquisition." In T.R. Dixon & D.L. Horton eds. Verbal Behavior and General Behavior Theory. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1968. 406-420.  [S=Kessel, 57]

Mellon, John C. "A Taxonomy of Compositional Competencies," in Perspectives on Literacy, ed. Richard Beach and P. David Pearson.  Minneapolis: Univ of Minnesota College of Education, 1979, 247-272. (S=CE, Feb 85,  107.)

_____ Transformational Sentence Combining: A Method for Enhancing the Development of Syntactic Fluency in English Composition  NCTE Research Report #10. 1969. [H, R, N7] [See also.] 

Menyuk. P. Language and Maturation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1977. (S=Eng Ed,  May 85, 90).

_____. Sentences Children Use. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1969.  [S=Kessel, 57]

Miller, Susan. "Rhetorical Maturity: Definition and Development." in Reinventing the Rhetorical Tradition, ed. Aviva Freedman and Ian Pringle  (Conway, Ark.:L&S Books, 1980. (S=Writer's Mind, xix).

Moore, T.E., ed. Cognitive Development and the Acquisition of Language. NY: Academic Press, 1973. 

Nurss, Joanne R. "Research in Review: Linguistic Awareness and Learning to  Read." Young Children, 35, No.3 (1980), 57-66. (S=CE, 47 (1985), 122.)

O'Donnell, R. C., Griffin, W.J., & Norris, R.C. Syntax of kindergarten and elementary school children: A Transformational Analysis. Research Report No. 8. Champaign, Ill.: NCTE, 1967. [H,R, N7 -- an important study]

O'Hare, Frank. and Edward A. Kline.  The Modern Writer's Handbook  NY: Macmillan, 1993  [This is very traditional grammar text, published twenty years after O'Hare's widely influential study (below) that supposedly proved that students do not need to study grammar. O'Hare obviously did not believe in his own research.] [H, R, N7 See also.]

O'Hare, Frank Sentence Combining: Improving Student Writing Without Formal Grammar Instruction. NCTE Research Report # 15, 1973. [HR]

Olds, H. F. An Experimental Study of Syntactical Factors Influencing Childre's Comprehension of Certain Complex Relationships. Report no. 4. Center for Research and Development on Educational Differences. Harvard University, 1968. [S=Kessel, 57]

Owens, Robert E., Jr. Language Development: An Introduction. 3rd ed. NY: Maxwell Macmillan, 1992. [R, N7]

This is primarily a book about pre-school language development, and although some of my colleagues apparently consider it important, I consider it both a waste of future teachers' time and misleading. It is a waste of time because it presents masses of theoretical concepts and terms, almost all of which are irrelevant to the classroom. As for its being misleading, consdier his explanation of clauses:
       In contrast to a phrase, a clause is a group of words that contains both a subject and a predicate. A clause that can stand alone as grammatically complete is a simple sentence. Thus, "Jesus wept" is a simple sentence. Occasionally a sentence may contain more than one clause. When a sentence is combined with another sentence, they each become main clauses. A compound sentence is made up of two or more main clauses joined as equals, as in "Mary drove to work, and she had an accident." Both "Mary drove to work" and "She had an accident" are simple sentences serving in the larger compound sentence as main clauses. Main clauses may be joined by conjunctions, such as and, but, because,[sic] if, [sic] and so on. This process is called conjoining or coordinating.
    Some clauses, such as whom we met last week, cannot stand alone even though they contain a subject and a predicate. In this example, we is the subject [337] and met is the predicate, or main verb. Such clauses, called subordinate clauses, function as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs in support of the main clause. For example, she is the girl, a simple sentence, or main clause, can be joined with the subordinate clause above to form "She is the girl whom we met last week." A sentence such as this, made up of a main clause and at least one subordinate clause, is called a complex sentence. The subordinate clause is said to be embedded within the main clause. In general, subordinate clauses are introduced by subordinating conjunctions, such as after, although, before, until, while, and when, or by relative pronouns, such as who, which, and that. For example, the sentence "He doesn't know when it began to rain" contains the subordinate clause when it began to rain, which serves as the object of the verb know. In "The man who lives here hates children," who lives here is a subordinate clause modifying man. (336-337)
Most teachers would, I hope, agree that the way we define clauses pedagogically (i.e., for our students rather than for linguists) should be logical and consistent. Owens, however, appears to be totally oblivious to the problems inherent in his definitions. According to Owens, for example, "He doesn't know when it began to rain" is a complex sentence with a subordinate clause, but "He doesn't know if it began to rain" is simply a compound sentence -- with no embedding! There probably are linguists who want to consider if and because as coordinating conjunctions, but as far as I know, these linguists are still in the minority. The problems, moreover, go beyond definitions. Owens notes that "In the following sections, we shall discuss the development of both embedding within a sentence and conjoining." (337) Does he not realize that --without clear agreement on which is which -- the "following" discussions are basically meaningless?
Perera, K. (1984). Children's writing and reading.  Oxford: Basil Blackwell.  (S= Bob Yates, Central Missouri State University, ATEG Listserver)

_____ . (1986).  Language acquisition and writing.  In P. Fletcher and M. Garman (Eds.).  Language acquisition.  2nd Ed.  (pp 494-518). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (S= Bob Yates, Central Missouri State University, ATEG Listserver)

Postman, Neil and Weingartner, Charles. Linguistics: A Revolution in Teaching. New York: Delta, 1966. [R; Be careful!]

Prater, D.L., and Mayo, N.B. (1984), "Cognitive developmental level and  syntactic maturity." Journal of Research and Development in Education,  17 (1), 1-7. (S=RTE, DEC 84, 425. "Examined the effects of tenth grade  students' cognitive developmental stages on their writing in three  modes of discourse.  Results suggest that cognitive level is related to  syntactic maturity across modes of composition.") [H, X, R - note the differences resulting from modes]

_____ . & Padia, W. "The Effects of Modes of Discourse on Writing Performance of Students in Grades Four and Six." Research in the Teaching of English, May, 17, 127 - 134. (S= Prater, "Cognitive, " 7)

Rapeer, Louis W. "The Problem of Formal Grammar in Elementary Education."  The Journal of Educational Psychology. 4 (March, 1913), 124-317.  (S=Kolln, "Closing," 150.)

Roos, M.E. "Syntactic maturity and grading: A correlational study. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Wyoming Conference on Freshman and Sophmore English. Laramie, July 1981. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 207 071. [H, Microfilm, R; Review]

Schafer, John. "The Linguistic Analysis of Spoken and Written Texts." Exploring Speaking-Writing Relationships. Ed. Barry Kroll and Roberta Vann. Urbana: NCTE, 1981. 1-32. (S=Pam Dykstra, ATEG Listserver)

Scinto, Leonard. Written Language and Psychological Development. Orlando: Academic, 1986. .(S=Pam Dykstra, ATEG Listserver)

Scribner, Sylvia and Michael Cole. Psychology of Literacy (Cambridge, Mass.:  Harvard UP, 1981.) (S=CE, 47 (1985), 122.)

Segal, D. and N.R. Barr. "Relation of Achievement in Formal Grammar to  Achievement in Applied Grammar." Journal of Educational Research 12  (Dec 1926), 401-402. (S=Kolln, "Closing," 150.)

Shaughnessy, Mina. Errors and Expectations. New York: Oxford UP, 1977.[This book should be read by everyone who teachers either grammar or writing. R]

Sherwin, J. Stephen. Four Problems in Teaching English: A Critique of Research. Scranton, Pa.: International Textbook Company for NCTE,  1969.  ["The four problems are: 1) correlation between English skills and the study of Latin; 2) the teaching of spelling; 3) the relation of writing skills to grammar and linguistic study; 4) the value of sentence diagramming.  There is a full bibliography and index."  S=CE, 45(1983),764)]

Sinclair-de-Zwart, H. "Developmental Psycholinguistics." In D. Elkind & J. H. Flavell eds. Studies in Cognitive Development: Essays in Honor of Jean Piaget. NY: Oxford UP, 1969. 315-336. [S=Kessel, 58]

Slobin, D. I. "Grammatical Transformations and Sentence Comprehension in Childhood and Adulthood". Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. 1966. 5, 219-227. [S=Kessel, 58]

Smedslund, J. Concrete Reasoning: a study of Intellectual Development. Monographs of the Society for Reasearch in Child Development. 1964, 29 (2, Serial No. 93). Slobin, D. I. "Grammatical Transformations and Sentence Comprehension in Childhood and Adulthood". Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. 1966. 5, 219-227. [S=Kessel, 58]

Smelstor, Marjorie. "A Guide to the Role of Grammar in Teaching Writing" Madison: U of Wisconsin School of Education, 1978; ERIC 176 323. [pro grammar; S=CE, Feb 85, 105.]

Smith, F., & Miller, G. A. eds. The Genesis of Language. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1966. [S=Kessel, 58]

Strickland, Ruth G. The Language of Elementary School Children: Its Relationship to the Language of Reading Textbooks and the Quality of Reading of Selected Children Bulletin of the School of Education,  Indiana University, 38, 4 (July, 1962), 1-131. (S=Hunt, 1965, 159.)

Strom, Ingrid M. "Research on Grammar and Usage and Its Implications for  Teaching Writing." Bulletin of the School of Education, Indiana  University, 36 (1960), 13-14. (S=CE, 47 (1985), 126.)

Symonds, Percival M. "Practice Versus Grammar in Learning of Correct  English Usage." Journal of Educational Psychology. 22 (Feb, 1931),  81-95. (S=Kolln, "Closing," 150.)

_____ ,and Helen F. Daringer. "Studies in Learning of English  Expression: IV--Sentence Structure," Teachers College Record, 32  (October, 1930), 50-64. (S=Hunt, 1965, 159.)

Tabbert, Russell. "Parsing the Question 'Why Teach Grammar?'" EJ 73 (Dec 84): 38-42. [HR, A linguist, he argues for grammar but wants it  deemphasized.]

Tannen, Deborah. "The Myth of Orality and Literacy." Linguistics and Literacy. Ed. William Frawley. New York: Plenum, 1982. 37-50. (S=Pam Dykstra, ATEG Listserver)

- - -. "The Oral/Literate Continuum in Discourse." Spoken and Written Language: Exploring Orality and Literacy. Ed. Deborah Tannen. Norwood: Ablex, 1982. 1-16.(S=Pam Dykstra, ATEG Listserver)

- - -. "Relative Focus on Involvement in Oral and Written Discourse." Literacy, Language, and Learning. Ed. David Olsen, Nancy Torrence, and Angela Hildyard. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1985. 124-147. (S=Pam Dykstra, ATEG Listserver)

Templin, Mildred C. Certain Language Skills in Children: Their Development and Interrelationships. Minneapolis: Univ of Minnesota Press, 1957.  (S=Hunt, 1965, 159.)

Tibbetts, A.M. Working Papers: A Teacher's Observation on Composition  Glenview, Ill.: Scott, Foresman, 1982. (S=CE, Feb 85, 105; pro  grammar)

Turner, E. A., & Rommetveit, R. "The Acquisition of Sentencve Voice and Reversibility." Child Development. , 1967, 38 649-660. [S=Kessel, 58]

de Villiers, Jill G. & Peter A. Language Acquisition. Cambridge: Harvard UP., 1978. [Read Chapter Four: "Later Grammar." Although there is one small section on an experiment that involved children as old as ten, the majority of the text concerns language acquisition before age five. It is therefore a waste of time for English teachers. For more on this, click here. ]

Watts, A. F. The Language and Mental Development of Children: An Essay in Eduational Psychology. Boston: D.C. Heath, 1948. (S=Hunt, 1965, 159.)

Whyte, Jean. "Levels of Language Competence and Reading Ability: An  Exploratory Investigation," Journal of Research in Reading, 5 (1982),  123-132. (S=CE, Feb 85, 114.)

Williams, Joseph M. "Defining Complexity," CE, 41 (1979), 595-609. (S=CE, S 45 (1985), 124.)

Zipf, G.K. The Psychobiology of Language. Cambridge, Mass., 1935. 


This border is a reproduction of
Gerard David's
The Annunciation 
The Metropolitan Museum of Art 
at New York 

from WebMuseum http://metalab.unc.edu/wm/

Click here for the directory of my backgrounds based on art.
[for educational use only]