About the Art and Music on this Site

For Copyright information, click here.

For Acknowledgement of Permission to Use Midi Files, click here.

      What students learn in a course goes far beyond what is in the syllabus. Having established my course materials on the web, I was looking for graphics to brighten up the pages when it struck me that the graphics could come from classical art. Fortunately, I found several large collections already on the web, free for educational use. I want to thank the creators of these sites, both for the thousands of hours they have put in (I know.), and for the permission to use the files. I have tried always to include an acknowledgement and a link back to the site from which a graphic was taken. (See the bottom of this page.) In making the borders, I significantly reduced the size of the graphic files, but you can follow the links and see much larger, better detailed versions of the images in the borders. I am hoping that for at least some students, the borders and music on this site will open up (or enhance) their appreciation of the classical arts.

      The music presented more complex problems. Having heard a midi file, I was immediately hooked. I therefore quickly added midi files to many of my pages. They're fantastic, and worth waiting for -- if you can hear them. The main problem was that they take a fair amount of time to load, and not only does not everyone like them, but in many cases, for example., in the computer labs, they can't be played. The waiting -- for nothing -- frustrated many students, but other students were delighted with the music. 
     I think I have solved this problem with the frames. At the main "entrance" to each area (main menu, ENL 111 main menu, etc), a link offers the option of frames and music. If you don't chose this option, pages should load quickly. Choosing it opens up a new window with a row at the bottom. In that row, the viewer can select music and control the volume. One advantage of this approach is that, while you go wherever you want in the upper row, the music remains constant. (If the midi file is linked to the page, it shuts off as soon as you leave the page.) Another option would be to have the midi player pop up in a separate window, but this leaves a long trail of open windows --- yuk.  I spent some time trying to learn how to access the midi player -- in frames -- without opening a second window. Couldn't figure it out. [Yes, I know that's a fragment.] 
       By accident, however,  I realized that the second window might be an advantage. If you hold down the ALT and TAB keys simultaneously, you can flip through the windows that are open on your computer. This allows you to use the full screen window to do whatever you want while still hearing the midi files from the second window. If you want to change the music, you can ALT TAB back to make the changes. [If you have more than two windows open, ALT TAB will take you back and forth between the last two. Suppose, for example, that you have three windows open -- the two browser windows and your word processor. If you ALT TAB and your word processor pops up, you can get the word processor out of the way by clicking on the minimize button. Then try ALT TAB again. You may have to play with it a bit, but you might find this ALT TAB trick helpful.] 

Questions of Copyrights


      As noted above, the bordered backgrounds on this site were created from files found on several major collections of classical art on the web. Whenever I have used something from one of these sites, I have included a link back to the source. None of these collections indicate permissions for their reproductions, and, although these sites are well-known, there has not, to my knowledge, been any attempt to close them down. I therefore assume that these reproductions are legal, as long as they are not used for profit. Indeed, educational reproduction of these works, such as that done on this site, should increase the value of the originals.


     To the best of my knowledge, all the essays and other literary works on this site are either in the public domain or used with permission. As with everything else on this site, if it is taken from another site, I have included a link back to the source. This site would obviously not be possible without the thousands of hours contributed by hundreds of denizens of the web, and I thank them sincerely. If you find something that is not in the public domain (or not used with permission), please inform me so that appropriate action can be taken. evavra@pct.edu.


     When I started using them, midi files of popular music could be found in dozens of midi sites on the net, all apparently in the pubic domain, and almost all without any credit given to the sequencer (the person who made the computer file of the music). Since then, two "levels" of copyright questions have been raised about midi files on the web.
     The first "level" concerns the copy rights of the sequencers -- the people who make the midi files, some of whom are not individuals but companies. Many of the midi sites are temporarily closed because of lawsuits against some of them for their inclusion of copyrighted sequences. As a result of the discussion of this problem, I learned how to check midi files for copyright statements, and I found several files that I had downloaded and was using included copyright statements. Since then, I have checked all the files, both by checking the "properties" of the files for copyright statements, and by searching the files for the words "copy" and "19." To the best of my knowledge, from the point of view of the sequencing, all files on my sites are either in the public domain or I have permission to use them from the person who sequenced them. If anyone can show me that this is not the case, I will immediately remove the file(s) in question.
     The second "level" involves the rights of the creators of the musical scores. As I understand the situation, midi files were first created by computer enthusiasts as a hobby, well before the development of the www. These hobbyists developed their versions of classical, folk, and current popular music and shared them with friends or over the old, primarily local, computer bulletin boards. These files were not considered "performances," and the question of copyrights was not persued. The advent of the web led to an explosion of both midi sequencers and collectors, such that the question of the copyrights of  the original scores has now been raised. If, on this level, midi files of music written during the last 75 years are found to be illegal, I will have to remove all such midis from my sites. As of the time I write this, however, it is possible to download the original sound tracks, including lyrics, of most of this popular music in MP3 format.(See http://mp3.lycos.com.) Given this situation, I cannot see why I should currently remove the popular music midis from this site. For a more detailed discussion of my ideas about what has been called the "Midi War," click here.

Acknowledgements of Permission to Use Midi Files

Because this is a site that uses midis, and not a midi site, 
you cannot easily access any midi files from this page. 
To listen to the files, chose the "Listen to Music" option 
on one of the main menus.

Popular Music

Sequences by Steve Day

As I began to notice differences in the styles of midi hobbyists, I found that many of my favorite midis were sequenced by Steve Day. Mr. Day has graciously given me permission to "use anything that has [his] name in it." Because this is a site that uses midis rather than a midi site, I am currently limiting myself to his:
Love Is Strange
Rhythm of the Rain
You Really Got a Hold on Me
Rag Doll
Just One Look
If you enjoy Mr. Day's sequences, please send him a note of appreciation, at either sday@home.com or sad001@ccnet.com.
--Ed Vavra, March 5, 1999
This border is a reproduction of
Diego Velazquez's
 Maria Teresa of Spain ("with two watches")
Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna 
adapted from Mark Harden's WWW Artchive
[for educational use only]
Click here for the directory of my backgrounds based on art.